When Runtime.exec() won't

Navigate yourself around pitfalls related to the Runtime.exec() method

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The combination of forgetting my numerical methods class, the numerous bug reports on the bug parade, and the automatic rounding of floats and doubles when printing (but not after casting a float to a double) threw me. I apologize for confusing anyone who read the article, especially to new Java programmers. I present two better solutions to the problem:

The first possible solution is to always specify the desired rounding explicitly with NumberFormat. In my case, I use the float and double to represent dollars and cents; therefore, I need only two significant digits. Listing C3.1 demonstrates how to use the NumberFormat class to specify a maximum of two fraction digits.

Listing C3.1 FormatNumbers.java

import java.text.*;
public class FormatNumbers
    public static void main(String [] args)
            NumberFormat fmt = NumberFormat.getInstance();
            float f = 100.28f;
            System.out.println("As a float        : " + f);
            double d = f;
            System.out.println("Cast to a double  : " + d);
            System.out.println("Using NumberFormat: " + fmt.format(d));            
        } catch (Throwable t)

When we run the FormatNumbers program, it produces:

E:\classes\com\javaworld\jpitfalls\article2>java FormatNumbers
As a float        : 100.28
Cast to a double  : 100.27999877929688
Using NumberFormat: 100.28

As you can see -- regardless of whether we cast the float to a double -- when we specify the number of digits we want, it properly rounds to that precision -- even if the number is infinitely repeating in binary. To circumvent this pitfall, control the formatting of your doubles and floats when converting to a String.

A second, simpler solution would be to not use a float to represent cents. Integers (number of pennies) can represent cents, with a legal range of 0 to 99. You can check the range in the mutator method.

Next time

In my next column, I'll present another pitfall from java.lang, as well as two traps hiding in the java.net and the Swing packages. If you know of any Java pitfalls that have wasted your time and caused you frustration, please email them to me so we can save others the same fate.

Michael C. Daconta is the director of Web and technology services for McDonald Bradley, where he conducts training seminars and develops advanced systems with Java, JavaScript, and XML. Over the past 15 years, Daconta has held every major development position, including chief scientist, technical director, chief developer, team leader, systems analyst, and programmer. He is a Sun-certified Java programmer and coauthor of Java Pitfalls (John Wiley & Sons, 2000), Java 2 and JavaScript for C and C++ Programmers (John Wiley & Sons, 1999), and XML Development with Java 2 (Sams Publishing, 2000). In addition, he is the author of C++ Pointers and Dynamic Memory Management (John Wiley & Sons, 1995).

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