Get started with Hibernate

Introducing and configuring Hibernate

It's good to understand the need for object/relational mapping (ORM) in Java applications, but you're probably eager to see Hibernate in action. We'll start by showing you a simple example that demonstrates some of its power.

As you're probably aware, it's traditional for a programming book to start with a "Hello World" example. In this chapter, we follow that tradition by introducing Hibernate with a relatively simple "Hello World" program. However, simply printing a message to a console window won't be enough to really demonstrate Hibernate. Instead, our program will store newly created objects in the database, update them, and perform queries to retrieve them from the database.

In addition to the canonical "Hello World" example, we introduce the core Hibernate APIs and give details for a basic configuration.

"Hello World" with Hibernate

Hibernate applications define persistent classes that are "mapped" to database tables. Our "Hello World" example consists of one class and one mapping file. Let's see what a simple persistent class looks like, how the mapping is specified, and some of the things we can do with instances of the persistent class using Hibernate.

The objective of our sample application is to store messages in a database and to retrieve them for display. The application has a simple persistent class, Message, which represents these printable messages. Our Message class is shown in Listing 1.

Listing 1. Message.java: A simple persistent class

package hello;
public class Message {
   private Long id;
   private String text;
   private Message nextMessage;
   private Message() {}
   public Message(String text) {
      this.text = text;
   }
   public Long getId() {
      return id;
   }
   private void setId(Long id) {
      this.id = id;
   }
   public String getText() {
      return text;
   }
   public void setText(String text) {
      this.text = text;
   }
   public Message getNextMessage() {
      return nextMessage;
   }
   public void setNextMessage(Message nextMessage) {
      this.nextMessage = nextMessage;
   }
}

Our Message class has three attributes: the identifier attribute, the text of the message, and a reference to another Message. The identifier attribute allows the application to access the database identity—the primary key value—of a persistent object. If two instances of Message have the same identifier value, they represent the same row in the database. We've chosen Long for the type of our identifier attribute, but this isn't a requirement. Hibernate allows virtually anything for the identifier type, as you'll see later.

You may have noticed that all attributes of the Message class have JavaBean-style property accessor methods. The class also has a constructor with no parameters. The persistent classes we use in our examples will almost always look something like this.

Instances of the Message class may be managed (made persistent) by Hibernate, but they don't have to be. Since the Message object doesn't implement any Hibernate-specific classes or interfaces, we can use it like any other Java class:

Message message = new Message("Hello World");
System.out.println( message.getText() );

This code fragment does exactly what we've come to expect from "Hello World" applications: It prints "Hello World" to the console. It might look like we're trying to be cute here; in fact, we're demonstrating an important feature that distinguishes Hibernate from some other persistence solutions, such as EJB (Enterprise JavaBean) entity beans. Our persistent class can be used in any execution context—no special container is needed. Of course, you came here to see Hibernate itself, so let's save a new Message to the database:

Session session = getSessionFactory().openSession();
Transaction tx = session.beginTransaction();
Message message = new Message("Hello World");
session.save(message);
tx.commit();
session.close();

This code calls the Hibernate Session and Transaction interfaces. (We'll get to that getSessionFactory() call soon.) It results in the execution of something similar to the following SQL:

insert into MESSAGES (MESSAGE_ID, MESSAGE_TEXT, NEXT_MESSAGE_ID)
values (1, 'Hello World', null)

Hold on—the MESSAGE_ID column is being initialized to a strange value. We didn't set the id property of message anywhere, so we would expect it to be null, right? Actually, the id property is special: It's an identifier property—it holds a generated unique value. (We'll discuss how the value is generated later.) The value is assigned to the Message instance by Hibernate when save() is called.

For this example, we assume that the MESSAGES table already exists. Of course, we want our "Hello World" program to print the message to the console. Now that we have a message in the database, we're ready to demonstrate this. The next example retrieves all messages from the database, in alphabetical order, and prints them:

Session newSession = getSessionFactory().openSession();
Transaction newTransaction = newSession.beginTransaction();
List messages =
      newSession.find("from Message as m order by m.text asc");
System.out.println( messages.size() + " message(s) found:" );
for ( Iterator iter = messages.iterator(); iter.hasNext(); ) {
   Message message = (Message) iter.next();
   System.out.println( message.getText() );
}
newTransaction.commit();
newSession.close();

The literal string "from Message as m order by m.text asc" is a Hibernate query, expressed in Hibernate's own object-oriented Hibernate Query Language (HQL). This query is internally translated into the following SQL when find() is called:

select m.MESSAGE_ID, m.MESSAGE_TEXT, m.NEXT_MESSAGE_ID
from MESSAGES m
order by m.MESSAGE_TEXT asc

The code fragment prints:

1 message(s) found:
Hello World

If you've never used an ORM tool like Hibernate before, you were probably expecting to see the SQL statements somewhere in the code or metadata. They aren't there. All SQL is generated at runtime (actually at startup, for all reusable SQL statements).

To allow this magic to occur, Hibernate needs more information about how the Message class should be made persistent. This information is usually provided in an XML mapping document. The mapping document defines, among other things, how properties of the Message class map to columns of the MESSAGES table. Let's look at the mapping document in Listing 2.

Listing 2. A simple Hibernate XML mapping

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE hibernate-mapping PUBLIC
   "-//Hibernate/Hibernate Mapping DTD//EN"
   "http://hibernate.sourceforge.net/hibernate-mapping-2.0.dtd">
<hibernate-mapping>
   <class
      name="hello.Message"
      table="MESSAGES">
      <id
         name="id"
         column="MESSAGE_ID">
         <generator class="increment"/>
      </id>
      <property
         name="text"
         column="MESSAGE_TEXT"/>
      <many-to-one
         name="nextMessage"
         cascade="all"
         column="NEXT_MESSAGE_ID"/>
   </class>
</hibernate-mapping>

The mapping document tells Hibernate that the Message class is to be persisted to the MESSAGES table, that the identifier property maps to a column named MESSAGE_ID, that the text property maps to a column named MESSAGE_TEXT, and that the property named nextMessage is an association with many-to-one multiplicity that maps to a column named NEXT_MESSAGE_ID. (Don't worry about the other details for now.)

As you can see, the XML document isn't difficult to understand. You can easily write and maintain it by hand. Whichever method you choose, Hibernate has enough information to completely generate all the SQL statements that would be needed to insert, update, delete, and retrieve instances of the Message class. You no longer need to write these SQL statements by hand.

Note
Many Java developers have complained of the "metadata hell" that accompanies J2EE development. Some have suggested a movement away from XML metadata back to plain Java code. Although we applaud this suggestion for some problems, ORM represents a case where text-based metadata really is necessary. Hibernate has sensible defaults that minimize typing and a mature document type definition that can be used for auto-completion or validation in editors. You can even automatically generate metadata with various tools.

Now, let's change our first message and, while we're at it, create a new message associated with the first, as shown in Listing 3.

Listing 3. Updating a message

Session session = getSessionFactory().openSession();
Transaction tx = session.beginTransaction();
// 1 is the generated id of the first message
   Message message =
(Message) session.load( Message.class, new Long(1) );
message.setText("Greetings Earthling");
Message nextMessage = new Message("Take me to your leader (please)");
message.setNextMessage( nextMessage );
tx.commit();
session.close();

This code calls three SQL statements inside the same transaction:

select m.MESSAGE_ID, m.MESSAGE_TEXT, m.NEXT_MESSAGE_ID
from MESSAGES m
where m.MESSAGE_ID = 1
insert into MESSAGES (MESSAGE_ID, MESSAGE_TEXT, NEXT_MESSAGE_ID)
values (2, 'Take me to your leader (please)', null)
update MESSAGES
set MESSAGE_TEXT = 'Greetings Earthling', NEXT_MESSAGE_ID = 2
where MESSAGE_ID = 1

Notice how Hibernate detected the modification to the text and nextMessage properties of the first message and automatically updated the database. We've taken advantage of a Hibernate feature called automatic dirty checking: this feature saves us the effort of explicitly asking Hibernate to update the database when we modify the state of an object inside a transaction. Similarly, you can see that the new message was made persistent when a reference was created from the first message. This feature is called cascading save: it saves us the effort of explicitly making the new object persistent by calling save(), as long as it's reachable by an already persistent instance. Also notice that the ordering of the SQL statements isn't the same as the order in which we set property values. Hibernate uses a sophisticated algorithm to determine an efficient ordering that avoids database foreign key constraint violations but is still sufficiently predictable to the user. This feature is called transactional write-behind.

If we run "Hello World" again, it prints:

2 message(s) found:
Greetings Earthling
Take me to your leader (please)

This is as far as we'll take the "Hello World" application. Now that we finally have some code under our belt, we'll take a step back and present an overview of Hibernate's main APIs.

Understanding the architecture

The programming interfaces are the first thing you have to learn about Hibernate in order to use it in the persistence layer of your application. A major objective of API design is to keep the interfaces between software components as narrow as possible. In practice, however, ORM APIs aren't especially small. Don't worry, though; you don't have to understand all the Hibernate interfaces at once. The figure below illustrates the roles of the most important Hibernate interfaces in the business and persistence layers.

High-level overview of the Hibernate API in a layered architecture

We show the business layer above the persistence layer, since the business layer acts as a client of the persistence layer in a traditionally layered application. Note that some simple applications might not cleanly separate business logic from persistence logic; that's okay—it merely simplifies the diagram.

The Hibernate interfaces shown in the figure above may be approximately classified as follows:

  • Interfaces called by applications to perform basic CRUD (create/read/update/delete) and querying operations. These interfaces are the main point of dependency of application business/control logic on Hibernate. They include Session, Transaction, and Query.
  • Interfaces called by application infrastructure code to configure Hibernate, most importantly, the Configuration class.
  • Callback interfaces that allow the application to react to events occurring inside Hibernate, such as Interceptor, Lifecycle, and Validatable.
  • Interfaces that allow extension of Hibernate's powerful mapping functionality, such as UserType, CompositeUserType, and IdentifierGenerator. These interfaces are implemented by application infrastructure code (if necessary).

Hibernate makes use of existing Java APIs, including JDBC (Java Database Connectivity), Java Transaction API (JTA), and Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI). JDBC provides a rudimentary level of abstraction of functionality common to relational databases, allowing almost any database with a JDBC driver to be supported by Hibernate. JNDI and JTA allow Hibernate to be integrated with J2EE application servers.

In this section, we don't cover the detailed semantics of Hibernate API methods, just the role of each of the primary interfaces. You can find most of these interfaces in the package net.sf.hibernate. Let's take a brief look at each interface in turn.

The core interfaces

The five core interfaces are used in just about every Hibernate application. Using these interfaces, you can store and retrieve persistent objects and control transactions.

Session interface

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