JavaTip 69: Press Escape to close your Java dialog windows

Discover how to program keystroke responses in your Dialogs' parent classes

These days, computer users expect every application to follow the same function metaphors and have little patience with those apps that don't. Windows users, for example, expect their dialog windows to close whenever they press the Escape key. With that expectation in mind, we'll examine an easy method for intercepting the Escape-key event in Java applets and applications.

In Java, it's difficult to intercept key events in the dialog box because the key event goes directly to the component possessing the focus. To work properly, you have to add the Dialog object as a KeyListener to all its components and containers (and the children and grandchildren of those containers). If you have a lot of complex Dialogs with deep component hierarchies, this becomes quite a tedious task. Maintenance of the code is also a nightmare, because when you add a new component, or a container full of components, to an existing Dialog you mustn't forget to add the Dialog as a KeyListener to each new component.

However, there's an easy way to program a response to key events in the Dialog's superclass, so you don't have to remember the Escape key handling when you develop your product further. All you have to do is create class EscapeDialog that extends the Dialog and automatically adds itself as a KeyListener to all its descendant components. Thus, EscapeDialog will receive notification of all key events that happen in any of its components. So notified, EscapeDialog closes itself when the Escape key is pressed. If you derive all your Dialogs from the EscapeDialog class, hitting the Escape key will close them for you.

The hard part in all this is to add EscapeDialog as a KeyListener to each of its components, because it doesn't know which components belong to its subclasses. Besides, components can be added and removed on the fly after the Dialog creation. The trick is to make EscapeDialog a ContainerListener so that it's notified when a new component is added to it or to any of its descendant containers. Whenever this happens, we'll add the EscapeDialog object as a KeyListener to the newly added component and all its descendants.

The componentAdded and componentRemoved functions

As a ContainerListener, EscapeDialog must define functions componentAdded and componentRemoved, which will be called whenever a component is added to or removed from a container belonging to the EscapeDialog. However, these functions cannot merely add or remove the EscapeDialog as a listener to the newly added component -- the component could actually be a container full of other components. The EscapeDialog needs to listen to them all. That's why we need to call a recursive function that adds EscapeDialog to the newly added component and all its descendants, if any. Here's the definition of the functions:

// This function is called whenever a Component or a Container is added to 
// another Container belonging to this EscapeDialog
     public void componentAdded(ContainerEvent e)
// This function is called whenever a Component or a Container is removed
// from another Container belonging to this EscapeDialog
     public void componentRemoved(ContainerEvent e)

The two recursive functions called from componentAdded and componentRemoved receive the newly added or removed component as an argument. They do all the work of adding or removing EscapeDialog as a listener to the component and all its descendants. The two functions look exactly the same with the exception that they handle the opposite actions. If you understand one, you understand both.

Here's the code for the componentAdded function:

     private void addKeyAndContainerListenerRecursively(Component c)
//Add KeyListener to the Component passed as an argument
//Check if the Component is a Container
          if(c instanceof Container) {
//Component c is a Container. The following cast is safe.
               Container cont = (Container)c;
//Add ContainerListener to the Container.
//Get the Container's array of children Components.
               Component[] children = cont.getComponents();
//For every child repeat the above operation.
               for(int i = 0; i < children.length; i++){

Additional actions for container components

To accomplish our task, we need to add the EscapeDialog as a KeyListener to the component passed as an argument (this is the newly added component if we're in the first recursion of the function). Then we check whether or not the component is a container. If it isn't, we're done, because the component doesn't contain any child components. If the component turns out to be a container, the container requires two additional actions:

  • Add EscapeDialog as a ContainerListener to the container, so the EscapeDialog receives notification if other components are added to the container in the future

  • Call this function recursively for every child of the container, so all components of the container receive EscapeDialog as a KeyListener

The keyPressed function

Because the EscapeDialog object is a KeyListener of all its descendent components, the function keyPressed will be called whenever a key is pressed and the focus belongs to the Dialog or one of its components:

     public void keyPressed(KeyEvent e)
          int code = e.getKeyCode();
          if(code == KeyEvent.VK_ESCAPE){
//Key pressed is the Escape key. Hide this Dialog.
          else if(code == KeyEvent.VK_ENTER){
//Key pressed is the Enter key. Redefine performEnterAction() in subclasses 
to respond to pressing the Enter key.
//Insert code to process other keys here

If the Escape key is pressed, we hide the dialog by calling function setVisible(false). In addition, you can program a response to any key pressed. For example, on pressing the Enter key, function performEnterAction is called. As it stands now, this function doesn't do anything, but you can redefine it in a subclass to do something useful.

In the constructor of the EscapeDialog we need to add this EscapeDialog to itself as a KeyListener and a ContainerListener:

     public EscapeDialog(Frame frame, String title, boolean modal)
          super(frame, title, modal);

The source code for this article can be accessed at


If you derive all your dialog boxes from EscapeDialog, the Escape key will automatically close them. Now you can concentrate on creating specific layouts and functionality for your dialogs without worrying about the basic functionality that today's users expect.

Eugene Podgorbunskikh is a senior developer at Logica Advantage kbs (, where he works with Java and C++ to build customer-support applications.

Learn more about this topic

  • The source code for this article
  • Event handling in JDK 1.1
  • The container-component relationship in Java
  • An example of registering a Listener object on buttons added dynamically to a container,
  • Examples of recursive functions