Introduction to scripting in Java, Part 2

Find out what else you need to know about scripting in this second half of the JavaWorld excerpt from Dejan Bosanac's Scripting in Java: Languages, Frameworks, and Patterns (Addison Wesley Professional, August 2007)

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A few aspects of scripting make programs written in scripting languages easier to maintain.

The first important aspect is the fact that programs written in scripting languages are shorter than their system-programming equivalents, due to the natural integration of complex data types, more powerful statements, and dynamic typing. Simple logic dictates it is easier to debug and add additional features to a shorter program than to a longer one, regardless of what programming language it was written in. Here's a more descriptive discussion on this topic, taken from the aforementioned Guido van Rossum interview:

This is all very informal, but I heard someone say a good programmer can reasonably maintain about 20,000 lines of code. Whether that is 20,000 lines of assembler, C, or some high-level language doesn't matter. It's still 20,000 lines. If your language requires fewer lines to express the same ideas, you can spend more time on stuff that otherwise would go beyond those 20,000 lines.

A 20,000-line Python program would probably be a 100,000-line Java or C++ program. It might be a 200,000-line C program, because C offers you even less structure. Looking for a bug or making a systematic change is much more work in a 100,000-line program than in a 20,000-line program. For smaller scales, it works in the same way. A 500-line program feels much different than a 10,000-line program.

The counterargument to this is the claim that static typing also represents a kind of code documentation. Having every variable, method argument, and return result in a defined type makes code more readable. Although this is a valid claim when it comes to method and property declarations, it certainly is not important to document every temporary variable. Also, in almost every programming language you can find a mechanism and tools used to document your code. For example, Java developers usually use the Javadoc tool to generate HTML documentation from specially formatted comments in source code. This kind of documentation is more comprehensive and could be used both in scripting and in system-programming languages.

Also, almost every dynamically typed language permits explicit type declaration but does not force it. Every scripting developer is free to choose where explicit type declarations should be used and where they are sufficient. This could result in both a rapid development environment and readable, documented code.

Extreme Programming

In the past few years, many organizations adopted extreme programming as their software development methodology. The two basic principles of extreme programming are test-driven development (TDD) and refactoring.

You can view the TDD technique as a kind of revolution in the way people create programs. Instead of performing the following:

  1. Write the code.

  2. Test it if appropriate.

The TDD cycle incorporates these steps:

  1. Write the test for certain program functionality.

  2. Write enough code to get it to fail (API).

  3. Run the test and watch it fail.

  4. Write the whole functionality.

  5. Run the code and watch all tests pass.

On top of this development cycle, the extreme programming methodology introduces refactoring as a technique for code improvement and maintenance. Refactoring is the technique of restructuring the existing code body without changing its external behavior. The idea of refactoring is to keep the code design clean, avoid code duplication, and improve bad design. These changes should be small because that way, it is likely we will not break the existing functionality.

After code refactoring, we have to run all the tests again to make sure the program is still behaving according to its design.

I already stated tests are one way to improve our programs' robustness and to prevent type errors in dynamically typed languages. From the refactoring point of view, interpreted languages offer benefits because they skip the compilation process during development. For applications developed using the system-programming language, after every small change (refactoring), you have to do compilation and run tests. Both of these operations could be time consuming on a large code base, so the fact that compilation could be omitted means we can save some time.

Dynamic typing is a real advance in terms of refactoring. Usually, because of laziness or a lack of the big picture, a developer defines a method with as narrow an argument type as he needs at that moment. To reuse that method later, we have to change the argument type to some more general or complex structure. If this type is a concrete type or does not share the same interface as the one we used previously, we are in trouble. Not only do we have to change that method definition, but also the types of all variables passed to that method as the particular argument. In dynamically typed languages, this problem does not exist. All you need to do is change the method to handle this more general type.

We could amortize these problems in system programming environments with good refactoring tools, which exist for most IDEs today. Again, the real benefit is speed of development. Because scripting languages enable developers to write code faster, they have more time to do appropriate unit testing and to write stub classes. A higher level of abstraction and a dynamic nature make scripted programs more convenient to change, so we can say they naturally fit the extreme programming methodology.

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