Java 101: Foundations

Java 101: Learn Java from the ground up

A complete beginner's introduction to the Java platform

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During execution, the interpreter typically encounters a request to execute another class file's bytecode (belonging to the program or to a library). When this happens, the classloader loads the class file and the bytecode verifier verifies the loaded class file's bytecode before it's executed. Also during execution, bytecode instructions might request that the JVM open a file, display something on the screen, make a sound, or perform another task requiring cooperation with the native platform. The JVM responds by using its Java Native Interface (JNI) bridge technology to interact with the native platform to perform the task.

Set up Java on your system

The Java platform is distributed as the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), which contains the JVM, a browser plugin for running applets, the standard class library, and a few other items. You will need both the JRE and a JDK in order to develop and run Java programs. The JDK download from Oracle includes the JRE and the basic development tools required to begin developing, debugging, and monitoring your applications in Java. At the time of this writing the most current version of the JDK is Java SE 8u45.

After downloading and installing the JDK you should update your PATH environment variable to reference the JDK's bin subdirectory of the installation directory, so that you can execute JDK tools from any directory in the file system. If you need instructions for updating PATH you can find them here. (Note that my examples are based on using the command line with command-line Java tools, but you can just as easily use NetBeans or another IDE if you prefer.)

The JDK installation directory contains various files and subdirectories, including the following three important subdirectories:

  • bin contains various JDK tools, such as the Java compiler (javac) and Java application launcher (java). You'll interact with these and other tools throughout the Java 101 series. (Note that the Java compiler and the JIT compiler are two different compilers.)
  • jre contains the JDK's private copy of the JRE, which lets you run Java programs without having to download and install the standalone JRE.
  • lib contains library files that are used by JDK tools. For example, tools.jar contains the Java compiler's class files -- the compiler is a Java application. (The javac tool isn't the compiler, but is a native-platform-specific convenience for starting the JVM and running the Java-based compiler.)

Now that you've installed the JDK and configured your development environment, you are ready to code your first Java application.

Developing Java applications

In this series, I'll present most examples in the form of applications. An application is minimally implemented as a single class that declares a main() method, as follows:

class X
   public static void main(String[] args)

Think of a class as a placeholder for declaring methods and data item storage locations. The class declaration begins with the reserved word class, which is followed by a mandatory name, which is represented by X, a placeholder for an actual name (e.g., Account). The name is followed by a body of methods and data item storage locations; the body is delimited by open brace ({) and close brace (}) characters.

Think of a method as a named block of code that processes inputs and returns an output. main() receives an array of String objects describing its inputs; the array is named args. Each object identifies a string, a double-quoted sequence of characters that (in this case) denotes a command-line argument, such as a file's name passed to the application as one of its arguments. main() doesn't return an output, and so it is assigned the void reserved word as its return type.

Additionally, main()'s header is assigned public and static so that it can be called by the java application launcher. Following this method header is a body of code; as with a class body, the method body is delimited by brace characters.

This is all you need to know about classes and methods (especially main()) in order to code your first Java application. You'll learn more about these language features (along with strings, arrays, return types, and more) in future articles.

Saying hello

It's traditional to introduce a computer language by presenting a program that outputs the famous hello, world message. Listing 1 accomplishes this task:

Listing 1. (version 1)

class HelloWorld
   public static void main(String[] args)
      System.out.println("hello, world");

The application's class is named HelloWorld. Its main() method executes System.out.println("hello, world"); to send the contents of the "hello, world" string to the standard output stream, which is typically the command line.

Store Listing 1 in a file named Then, at the command line, execute the following command to compile this source file:


Note that javac requires the .java file extension; otherwise, it generates an error message. If the source code compiles without an error, you should observe HelloWorld.class in the current directory.

HelloWorld.class contains the executable equivalent of To run this class file via the java application launcher tool, execute the following command:

java HelloWorld

Note that java doesn't permit you to include the .class file extension; if you do so it will generate an error message.

Assuming you've written your program correctly, you should observe the following output:

hello, world

If you see this output, congratulate yourself. You've just compiled and run your first Java application! There will be many more examples throughout the rest of this series.

Personalizing hello

We can improve on Listing 1 by personalizing the application. For example, you might want to output hello, Java instead of hello, world. Listing 2 shows this enhancement of the original program:

Listing 2. (version 2)

class HelloWorld
   public static void main(String[] args)
      System.out.println("hello, " + args[0]);

Listing 2 shortens "hello, world" to "hello, " and appends + args[0] to join the args array's first string to the message. The result is then output.

"hello, " + args[0] is an expression that appends the string in the first element of the args array to hello, . (You'll learn more about expressions and this string concatenation later in the Java 101 series.)

Compile Listing 2 (javac and run the application with a single command-line argument, as follows:

java HelloWorld Java

You should observe the following output:

hello, Java

Suppose you execute HelloWorld without any command-line arguments, as in java HelloWorld. This time, you will see something different:

Exception in thread "main" java.lang.ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException: 0
	at HelloWorld.main(

This error message refers to an exceptional condition that has arisen. Specifically, because there are no command-line arguments, args[0] doesn't contain anything. The attempt to access args[0]'s non-existent string is illegal.

As you develop Java applications, you'll run into many more exceptional messages like this one. Rather than be intimidated, think of these messages as tips for correcting problems.

In conclusion

We've covered a lot of ground in this article. You've learned that Java is a language and a platform. You're aware of the various Java editions. You know how the JVM executes Java class files. You've discovered the difference between the JRE and the JDK, and how to set up the JDK on your system. You've gained insight into the architecture of a Java application and learned how to compile source code and execute class files via the javac and java tools, respectively.

We'll build on this foundation in the next article in this series, where I will begin introducing fundamental Java language features. Mastering these features will enable you to create applications that are similar in architecture to programs from the structured programming era. It will also give you the foundation to dive into Java's support for classes, objects, and related features.

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