Web services in Java SE, Part 3: Creating RESTful Web services

Learn how to create RESTful-based Web services

Part 2 of this four-part series on Java SE Web services showed how to use the JAX-WS API to develop SOAP-based Web services. JAX-WS also supports RESTful-based Web services, which this article shows how to develop. It first defines and then builds and runs a library Web service, and next defines, builds, and runs a simple client that accesses this service.

Defining a library web service

The library Web service, which I've named Library, manages a library of books with their authors. It consists of a main Library class along with supporting Book and Author classes.

Exploring the Library class

The Library class manages the four HTTP operations (DELETE, GET, POST, and PUT) that are the hallmark of a RESTful Web service and which, in this example, handle requests to delete a specific book (identified via its ISBN) or all books, get a specific book (identified via its ISBN) or the ISBNs of all books, insert a new book, or update an existing book. Listing 1 presents this class's source code.

Listing 1. Library's endpoint class

import java.beans.XMLDecoder;
import java.beans.XMLEncoder;

import java.io.BufferedInputStream;
import java.io.BufferedOutputStream;
import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.StringReader;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Set;

import javax.annotation.Resource;

import javax.xml.transform.Source;
import javax.xml.transform.Transformer;
import javax.xml.transform.TransformerException;
import javax.xml.transform.TransformerFactory;

import javax.xml.transform.dom.DOMResult;

import javax.xml.transform.stream.StreamSource;

import javax.xml.ws.BindingType;
import javax.xml.ws.Endpoint;
import javax.xml.ws.Provider;
import javax.xml.ws.ServiceMode;
import javax.xml.ws.WebServiceContext;
import javax.xml.ws.WebServiceProvider;

import javax.xml.ws.handler.MessageContext;

import javax.xml.ws.http.HTTPBinding;
import javax.xml.ws.http.HTTPException;

import javax.xml.xpath.XPath;
import javax.xml.xpath.XPathConstants;
import javax.xml.xpath.XPathExpressionException;
import javax.xml.xpath.XPathFactory;

import org.w3c.dom.NodeList;

@WebServiceProvider
@ServiceMode(value = javax.xml.ws.Service.Mode.MESSAGE)
@BindingType(value = HTTPBinding.HTTP_BINDING)
public class Library implements Provider<Source>
{
   private final static String LIBFILE = "library.ser";
   @Resource
   private WebServiceContext wsContext;
   private Map<String, Book> library;

   Library()
   {
      try
      {
         library = deserialize();
      }
      catch (IOException ioe)
      {
         library = new HashMap<>();
      }
   }

   @Override
   public Source invoke(Source request)
   {
      if (wsContext == null)
         throw new RuntimeException("dependency injection failed on wsContext");
      MessageContext msgContext = wsContext.getMessageContext();
      switch ((String) msgContext.get(MessageContext.HTTP_REQUEST_METHOD))
      {
         case "DELETE": return doDelete(msgContext);
         case "GET"   : return doGet(msgContext);
         case "POST"  : return doPost(msgContext, request);
         case "PUT"   : return doPut(msgContext, request);
         default      : throw new HTTPException(405);
      }
   }

   private Source doDelete(MessageContext msgContext)
   {
      try
      {
         String qs = (String) msgContext.get(MessageContext.QUERY_STRING);
         if (qs == null)
         {
            library.clear();
            serialize();
            StringBuilder xml = new StringBuilder("<?xml version=\"1.0\"?>");
            xml.append("<response>all books deleted</response>");
            return new StreamSource(new StringReader(xml.toString()));
         }
         else
         {
            String[] pair = qs.split("=");
            if (!pair[0].equalsIgnoreCase("isbn"))
               throw new HTTPException(400);
            String isbn = pair[1].trim();
            library.remove(isbn);
            serialize();
            StringBuilder xml = new StringBuilder("<?xml version=\"1.0\"?>");
            xml.append("<response>book deleted</response>");
            return new StreamSource(new StringReader(xml.toString()));
         }
      }
      catch (IOException ioe)
      {
         throw new HTTPException(500);
      }
   }

   private Source doGet(MessageContext msgContext)
   {
      String qs = (String) msgContext.get(MessageContext.QUERY_STRING);
      if (qs == null)
      {
         Set<String> keys = library.keySet();
         Iterator<String> iter = keys.iterator();
         StringBuilder xml = new StringBuilder("<?xml version=\"1.0\"?>");
         xml.append("<isbns>");
         while (iter.hasNext())
            xml.append("<isbn>" + iter.next() + "</isbn>");
         xml.append("</isbns>");
         return new StreamSource(new StringReader(xml.toString()));
      }
      else
      {
         String[] pair = qs.split("=");
         if (!pair[0].equalsIgnoreCase("isbn"))
            throw new HTTPException(400);
         String isbn = pair[1].trim();
         Book book = library.get(isbn);
         if (book == null)
            throw new HTTPException(404);
         StringBuilder xml = new StringBuilder("<?xml version=\"1.0\"?>");
         xml.append("<book isbn=\"" + book.getISBN() + "\" " +
                    "pubyear=\"" + book.getPubYear() + "\">");
         xml.append("<title>" + book.getTitle() + "</title>");
         for (Author author: book.getAuthors())
            xml.append("<author>" + author.getName() + "</author>");
         xml.append("<publisher>" + book.getPublisher() + "</publisher>");
         xml.append("</book>");
         return new StreamSource(new StringReader(xml.toString()));
      }
   }

   private Source doPost(MessageContext msgContext, Source source)
   {
      try
      {
         DOMResult dom = new DOMResult();
         Transformer t = TransformerFactory.newInstance().newTransformer();
         t.transform(source, dom);
         XPathFactory xpf = XPathFactory.newInstance();
         XPath xp = xpf.newXPath();
         NodeList books = (NodeList) xp.evaluate("/book", dom.getNode(),
                                                 XPathConstants.NODESET);
         String isbn = xp.evaluate("@isbn", books.item(0));
         if (library.containsKey(isbn))
            throw new HTTPException(400);
         String pubYear = xp.evaluate("@pubyear", books.item(0));
         String title = xp.evaluate("title", books.item(0)).trim();
         String publisher = xp.evaluate("publisher", books.item(0)).trim();
         NodeList authors = (NodeList) xp.evaluate("author", books.item(0),
                                                   XPathConstants.NODESET);
         List<Author> auths = new ArrayList<>();
         for (int i = 0; i < authors.getLength(); i++)
            auths.add(new Author(authors.item(i).getFirstChild()
                                        .getNodeValue().trim()));
         Book book = new Book(isbn, title, publisher, pubYear, auths);
         library.put(isbn, book);
         serialize();
      }
      catch (IOException | TransformerException e)
      {
         throw new HTTPException(500);
      }
      catch (XPathExpressionException xpee)
      {
         throw new HTTPException(400);
      }
      StringBuilder xml = new StringBuilder("<?xml version=\"1.0\"?>");
      xml.append("<response>book inserted</response>");
      return new StreamSource(new StringReader(xml.toString()));
   }

   private Source doPut(MessageContext msgContext, Source source)
   {
      try
      {
         DOMResult dom = new DOMResult();
         Transformer t = TransformerFactory.newInstance().newTransformer();
         t.transform(source, dom);
         XPathFactory xpf = XPathFactory.newInstance();
         XPath xp = xpf.newXPath();
         NodeList books = (NodeList) xp.evaluate("/book", dom.getNode(),
                                                 XPathConstants.NODESET);
         String isbn = xp.evaluate("@isbn", books.item(0));
         if (!library.containsKey(isbn))
            throw new HTTPException(400);
         String pubYear = xp.evaluate("@pubyear", books.item(0));
         String title = xp.evaluate("title", books.item(0)).trim();
         String publisher = xp.evaluate("publisher", books.item(0)).trim();
         NodeList authors = (NodeList) xp.evaluate("author", books.item(0),
                                                   XPathConstants.NODESET);
         List<Author> auths = new ArrayList<>();
         for (int i = 0; i < authors.getLength(); i++)
            auths.add(new Author(authors.item(i).getFirstChild()
                                        .getNodeValue().trim()));
         Book book = new Book(isbn, title, publisher, pubYear, auths);
         library.put(isbn, book);
         serialize();
      }
      catch (IOException | TransformerException e)
      {
         throw new HTTPException(500);
      }
      catch (XPathExpressionException xpee)
      {
         throw new HTTPException(400);
      }
      StringBuilder xml = new StringBuilder("<?xml version=\"1.0\"?>");
      xml.append("<response>book updated</response>");
      return new StreamSource(new StringReader(xml.toString()));
   }

   private Map<String, Book> deserialize() throws IOException
   {
      try (BufferedInputStream bis = 
           new BufferedInputStream(new FileInputStream(LIBFILE));
           XMLDecoder xmld = new XMLDecoder(bis))
      {
         @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
         Map<String, Book> result = (Map<String, Book>) xmld.readObject();
         return result;
      }
   }

   private void serialize() throws IOException
   {
      try (BufferedOutputStream bos
             = new BufferedOutputStream(new FileOutputStream(LIBFILE));
           XMLEncoder xmle = new XMLEncoder(bos))
      {
         xmle.writeObject(library);
      }
   }

   public static void main(String[] args)
   {
      Endpoint.publish("http://localhost:9902/library", new Library());
   }
}

Listing 1 relies on various Java XML APIs such as DOM and XPath. If you're unfamiliar with these APIs, you might want to check out my Java XML and JSON book (advertised at the end of this post).

Annotating library

Listing 1 reveals that the Library class is prefixed with @WebServiceProvider, @ServiceMode, and @Binding annotations.

@WebServiceProvider specifies that Library is a Web service endpoint class implementing the javax.xml.ws.Provider<T> interface (an alternative to a Service Endpoint Interface [SEI] for services that need to work at the XML message level) in terms of its T invoke(T request) method. The actual type argument that you pass to type parameter T identifies the source of request and response data, and is one of the following types: javax.xml.transform.Source, javax.activation.DataSource, or javax.xml.soap.SOAPMessage. For a RESTful Web service provider, you would specify Source or DataSource for T.

When a request is made to the RESTful Web service, the provider class's invoke() method is called with a source of bytes, such as a POST request's XML document. The invoke() method responds to the request in some appropriate way, returning a source of bytes in XML format that form the service's response. This method throws an instance of the javax.xml.ws.WebServiceException runtime exception class or one of its descendent classes (e.g., javax.xml.ws.http.HTTPException) when something goes wrong.

@ServiceMode specifies that Library's invoke() method receives entire protocol messages (instead of message payloads) by having its value() element initialized to javax.xml.ws.Service.Mode.MESSAGE. When this annotation isn't present, value() defaults to javax.xml.ws.Service.Mode.PAYLOAD.

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